Post Vedic Period
- In this chapter, Janpadas, Mahajanapadas, and Ganas have been discussed.
- Along with this, about the Magadha Empire and Sikandar have also been told.
- The king was elected by the people, but about 3000 years ago some people became king by performing Ashwamedha Yagya.
- The general public used to bring gifts for the king in this ritual.
- Shudras were not allowed to participate in these rituals.
- The kings who performed the great sacrifices were now considered not the people but the kings of Jabpado.
- Purana Fort in Delhi, Hastinapur near Meerut in Uttar Pradesh and Atranjikheda near Etah are prominent among them.
- These people lived in huts.
- Those people used to grow rice, wheat, paddy, barley, pulses,and sesame.
- In the excavation, gray and some red colored painted-gray vessels have been found.
- About 2500 years ago, some Janapadas became more important and that is why they came to be called Mahajanapadas.
- They had a capital.
- Fortifications were made in many capitals.
- Some used to keep soldiers by paying salaries.
- Crop tax:- 1/6th of the yield
- Taxes on Artisans:- In the form of labour, the king had to work for one day in a month.
- Taxes on animal husbandry: – May have to be taxed in the form of animals or their products.
- Traders also had to pay taxes for buying and selling goods.
Changes in Agriculture
- The plow pods began to be made of iron, which increased the yield.
- Paddy planting started.
Some rivers like Ganga and Son flowed through Magadha.
A part of Magadha was full of forests.
In one area there were iron ore mines. Used to make strong tools and weapons.
Rajagriha was the capital of Magadha, after a few years Pataliputra was made the capital.
- Vaishali used to be the capital.
- They used to make plans through discussions, debates, and disputes in the meetings.
- Women, slaves/maids, and Kammakars could not take part in these meetings.
- New Rulers – 3000 Years Ago
- Mahajanapada – 2500 years ago
- Gana – 1500 years ago
Question 1. Why did the king of Mahajanapada build forts?
Answer:- For the fear of an invasion of enemy states and for the security of our state.
Question – 2:- How was the process of election of the rulers of today different from the election of the districts?
Answer: – In today’s time voting machine is used, and people can give their choice to the ruler and this process remains secret. Earlier, kings were declared through Yagyas.