Chapter – 4 What Books and Burials Tell Us

One of the oldest book in the world

  • There are four types of Vedas, Rigveda, Samaveda, Yajurveda, and Atharveda.
  • The most Puranic Veda is Rigveda which was composed about 3500 years ago.
  • The Rigveda was recited and heard, not read.

Sanskrit and other languages

The Sanskrit language is part of the Indo-European (Indo-European) language family. Many languages ​​of India – Assamese, Gujarati, Hindi, Kashmiri, and Sindhi, and Asian languages ​​like – English, French, German, Greek, Italian, Spanish, etc. are related to this family. They are called a language family because, in the beginning, they had many words in common. For example Matri (Sanskrit), Maa (Hindi), Mother (English)

Cattle, Horses, and Chariots

  • There are prayers for cattle, sons, and horses in Rigveda.
  • Horses were used to pull chariots during the war.
  • War was organized to achieve something and also to make people captive.
  • Some of the money won in the war went to the chieftain, some to the priest, and some part was used for sacrifice.
  • Sometimes animals were also sacrificed in the Yagya.
  • They did not have a standing army.

Words to Describe People

  • The logo was described according to the class.
  • Brahmins (priests) used to perform various types of yagyas and rituals.
  • The king’s beta did not become the ruler by himself after the death of the king.
  • The whole community was called by the name of Janta or Vaishya.
  • Vaishyas and Janas have been found in Rigveda.
  • In later times the word Das/Dasi means slave.


This practice started about 3000 years ago.
Some megaliths are also seen above the ground, while some are also seen under the ground.
33 gold beads and shanks have been found in a tomb at Brahmagiri.
People were buried in big boxes.
Some people were even buried alive on the face of punishment.

Some important dates

  • Beginning of the composition of Vedas – about 3500 years ago
  • Beginning of megalithic builder – about 3000 years ago
  • Residence of farmers of Inamgaon – 3600 to 2700 years ago
  • Charaka – 2000 years ago

Lets Recall

Question 1. How are the books we read today different from the Rigveda?
: The books we read today have been written and printed. How Rigveda was spoken and heard. They were written centuries after the Rigveda was composed.

Question 2. How do archaeologists find social differences between people buried in tombs?
Answer: Traces social differences on the basis of objects found from the graves of buried people. When people were buried, they used to bury some of their things together with them. Today we get this information from those things.

Question 3. How was the life of a king different from the life of a slave or maid?
The life of the king used to be full of Aishwarya whereas the life of slaves and maid was full of suffering. Ten and the maid used to spend her whole life serving the king. He had to obey the orders of the king and the king’s entire family.

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