Chapter – 3 Fibre to Fabric

Variety in Fabrics

By diversity in textiles, it is meant that textiles such as bed sheets, blankets, curtains, towels, and dusters are made of different types of fibers – cotton, silk, woolen, synthetic, etc. The variety of fabrics made of different types of fibers is called textile diversity.


The threads shown in Tago are made up of several thin threads. Similarly, the rope is also made by mixing many thin threads/ropes.
The clothes are made by combining the tags.

Natural Fibres:- The fibers of some fabrics like cotton, jute, silk, and wool are obtained from plants Tata animals, they are called natural fibers.

Plants:- Cotton and jute are examples of fibers obtained from plants.

Animals: Wool and silk are obtained from animals. Wool is obtained from the sheared wool of sheep or goats. It is also obtained from the hair of rabbits, yak, and camel.
For thousands of years, only natural fibers were used for making clothes.
Sashilisht filaments: – For the last about a hundred years, filaments are being made from such chemical substances, whose sources are not plants or animals. these are called fine fibers

Some plant fibers


  • It is grown in dry areas.
  • Cotton seed is called cottonseed.
  • Cotton fruits are called bales, which are smooth and greenish-yellow in color, they have a structure like bracteoles thorns on them. The fruit contains seeds and cotton.
  • Cotton plants are generally cultivated in places with black soil and warm climate.
  • The fruit of the cotton plant (Cotton sycamore) is about the size of a lemon. When pre-mature the seeds break open and now cottonseed (cotton seed) covered with cotton filaments can be seen.
  • Generally, cotton is obtained by hand selection from these cotton bales. The seeds are then separated from the cotton by how much. This process is called cotton weaving.

Jute (Jute)

  • The yield of jute, crop variety, soil fertility, spacing, harvesting time, etc., depend on many factors.
  • Jute fibers are generally six to ten feet long.
  • The yield of Capsularis is 10-15 man per acre and that of Olitorius is 15-20 men per acre.
  • Good tillage can yield up to 30 mands per acre. Jute fiber is used to make sacks, hessian, and packing clothes.
  • The jute crop is sown from February to June. The suitable time for sowing jute is in the months of March and April. After harvesting the Rabi crop, the field should be irrigated and prepared for sowing immediately.
  • West Bengal is the largest jute-producing state in India.
  • Items made from jute:- Ropes, sacks, bags, paper, cheap tarpaulins, fancy handbags, cloth, and packing clothes are made. Pulp is also obtained from the stalk of the jute. This pulp is also used to make paper.

Spinning Cotton Yarn

  • The process of making yarn from fibers is called spinning.
  • In this process, the fibers are pulled and twisted with a wad of cotton. By doing this the fibers come closer and become fresh.
  • A simple device for spinning is the use of a hand spindle called a takli.
  • Another tactic is the spinning wheel, the use of the charkha was popularized by the Father of the Nation, Mahatma Gandhi, as a party to the freedom movement.
  • The work of spinning the tago on large pimonos is done with the help of spinning machines. After spinning, tago is used to make clothes.

Clothing from Tago

There are many methods of making clothes from fresh. The two main methods are weaving and greeting.


To make cloth from yarn or yarn or to make sweaters etc. from wool is called “weaving”.
In knitting, one after the other the loops are done. A new row is made by taking out the new noose from the old row’s noose.
The active loops are kept from deteriorating with the help of a needle and when new loops are put through them, the needle is removed. By this process the cloth is finally made.
Knitting is done by hand and also by machine. There are many styles and methods of knitting by hand.
Weaving is done both by hand and by machines
tied up
Bandai – This is a special type of weaving.
In this, a single thread or yarn is used to make a single piece of cloth.
Socks, sweaters, and many other wearables are made from fabrics made by binding.
The binding is done both by hand and by machines.

History of Textile Materials

  • Regarding clothes, it appears from the primitive evidence that in the beginning people used to cover their bodies with the bark of trees (valk), large leaves or skin of animals, and samur.
  • After starting to settle in the farming community, people learned to make mats and baskets by weaving thin twigs and grass.
  • By crimping the wool or hairs of vines, animals made long sticks. Weaving them and making clothes. In the past, Indians used to wear clothes made of cotton, which was grown in the areas near the river Ganges. Flax is also a plant from which natural fibers are obtained.
  • Just as there is a lot of diversity in the food eaten in the whole country, in the same way, there is a lot of diversity in the clothes and clothes.


Question:- Classify the following fibers into natural and synthetic. Nylon, wool, cotton, silk, polyester, cotton.

Nylon – Synthesized
Wool – Natural
Cotton – natural
Silk – natural
Polyester – Synthesized
Patch – Natural

Question:- Fill in the blanks.
Plant fibers are obtained from ……………… and ………..
(b) ………… and ………… are jib filaments.
(a) Cotton, Jute
(b) wool, silk

Question: From which parts of the plant are cotton and jute obtained?
Answer: Cotton is obtained from the fruit of the cotton plant. The fruit of the cotton plant is also called a
cotton ball. Jute is obtained from the stem of the plant.

Question: Write the names of two fibers made from coconut.
: – Baskets and ropes are made from the parts of the coconut plant.

Question: Explain the process of making fresh from fibers.
:- The process of making fresh from the fibers is called fresh. The thread is made by spinning the fibers. In this process, the fibers are pulled and twisted with a wad of cotton. By doing this the fibers come together and a thread is formed. A simple device for spinning is the use of a hand spindle called a Takli. Another device used in hand-operated spinning is the spinning wheel. The fibers are first extracted from the inside of their source and then twisted to make fresh ones. Two tools are used in this process. First spindle and second spinning wheel. A spindle and spinning wheel are used for harvesting. Large-scale harvesting is done using large cutting machines.

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