Chapter – 3 In The Earliest Cities

The Story of Harappa

This chapter discusses Harappa, one of the most famous civilizations of India.

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  • The Harappan civilization met the engineer about 150 years ago while laying the railway line in Punjab.
  • These cities have been found in the Punjab and Indus provinces of modern Pakistan, and Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana, and Punjab provinces of India.
  • These cities were built 4700 years ago or 2700 BC.
  • Archaeologists discovered this place 80 years ago.
  • Harappa is situated on the banks of the Ravi river.

Features of the Harappan Civilization

The city was divided into more than two parts.
Some parts were small but built on height and the eastern part was large but it was in the lower part.
The higher part is called the city Durga by the archaeologists and the lower part is called the lower city.
The walls of both sides were made of bricks.
Some special buildings were also built in the city of Durga, such as the great bath at Mohenjodaro.
In this, a layer of charcoal was plated over the plaster to stop the water.
To get down in it, stairs were made from two sides and rooms were made all around.

Cities and New Crafts

Most of the things that archaeologists have found from it were made from metals like conch, stone, copper, gold, silver, and bronze.
Jewelry and utensils were made from gold and silver.
Tools, ornaments, and utensils were made from copper and bronze.
The most attractive items found here are weights, panels, and beads.
People used to make stone pieces.

Buildings, Drains, and Roads

  • There was a ‘courtyard’ in the middle of the house.
  • Four or five large rooms were built around the courtyard with a ‘kitchen’ and a ‘bath’.
  • Bathrooms were built on the street side.
  • Some large buildings have been found, in which up to 30 rooms were made and the remains of a two-story building have also been found.
  • Some houses had separate bath houses and some houses had wells.
  • Roads running from east to west and north to south intersected each other at right angles.
  • The width of the main roads found in Mohenjodaro was about 9.15 meters and the streets were about 3 meters wide.
  • Roads were made of mud.
  • The drains on both sides of the roads were constructed with pucca bricks.
  • Many cities had drained and they were connected to the drains of the houses.

Urban Life

The Harappan cities were organized like a net.
Accordingly, the roads intersect each other at right angles.
Each city was divided into two parts, the western mounds, and the eastern mounds.
The western mounds were relatively high, but smaller.
Forts or forts were located on these mounds.
Evidence of a town or housing area has been found on the eastern mound.
This mound was relatively large. It was inhabited by ordinary citizens, merchants, craftsmen, artisans, and workers.
Important administrative and public buildings and granaries were mainly located inside the fort.
The rulers here used to plan for the construction of special buildings of the city.
There were also clerks in these cities who used to write on the seals.
Different types of things will have to be made in these cities and nearby places.

Imports in Harappan Civilization

  • Harappans probably imported copper from present-day Rajasthan.
  • Copper was also imported from the West Asian country of Oman.
  • Tin, a metal mixed with copper to make bronze, was imported from modern-day Iran and Afghanistan.
  • Gold was imported from modern Karnataka.
  • Gold – from modern Karnataka
  • Tin – from modern Iran and Afghanistan
  • Copper – Rajasthan, from Asian country Oman


People used to grow grains and raise animals.
The Harappans used to grow wheat, barley, sesame and paddy, pulses, mustard, peas etc.
People used to raise cows, buffaloes, sheep and goats.
They also used to hunt animals.

Some Important Dates

  • End of Harappan cities – 3900 years ago
  • Cotton Cultivation – 7000 years ago
  • Start of Cities – 4700 years ago
  • Development of Cities – 2500 years ago
image source: ncert

Let’s Recall

Question 1. How did archaeologists know that cloth was used during the Harappan Civilization?
Answer:- Evidence of cotton cultivation has been found 7000 years ago. In Mohenjodaro, clothes have been found wrapped on some items. A stone idol has been found in Mohenjodaro, in which the idol is shown wearing clothes.

Question 2: Match the following:

Tin Rajasthan
Precious StonesKarnataka

Answer: The convention of the following is as follows:

Tin Afghanistan
Precious StonesGujarat

Question 3: Why were metals, writing, wheel and plow important to the Harappan people?
: – Metals, writing, wheel, and plow were important for the Harappan people due to the following reasons:-
Metals– People used metals to make utensils and ornaments. The most important metals were copper, tin and gold.
Writing – The people of Harappa had their own special script. In the remains found from Harappa, large letters of this script have been found inscribed in stones.
This type of script has been found printed on seals.
Wheels – Used to pull rods and vehicles. With its help, pottery was also made.
Plow – Plow was used for farming.

Let’s discuss

Question 4: List all the toys made of terracotta in this chapter. Which of these toys would the kids like the most?
Answer: – People made many types of toys and toy-cart, plows,
and animal-bird samples were prominent. Out of these toys, children would have liked the models of trains more.

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