The Khilji dynasty (1290-1320 A.D.)

Jallauddin Khilji

  • Jalaluddin Khilji founded the Khilji dynasty.
  • He was a liberal ruler & adopted the policy of religious toleration
  • His son-in-law & nephew was Allauddin Khalji

Allauddin Khalji (1296-1316)

  • He was the first Turkish Sultan of Delhi who separated religion from politics. He proclaimed ‘Kingship knows no Kinship’.
  • During the reign of Jallauddin Khalji, he was the governor of Kara
  • He adopted the title Sikander-e-Saini or the second Alexander
  • Alauddin annexed Gujarat (1298), Ranthambhor (1301), Mewar (1303), Malwa (1305), Jalor (1311).
  • In Deccan, Aluddin’s army led by Malik Kafur defeated Ram Chandra (Yadava ruler of Devagiri), Pratap Rudradeva (Kakatiya ruler of Warangal), Vir Ballal III (Hoyasala ruler of Dwarsamudra) & Vir Pandya (Pandya ruler of Madurai).
  • Malik Kafur was awarded the title Malik Naib

Administrative & Market reforms during Allauddin
Alauddin issued 4 ordinances.

  1. Aimed at confiscation of the religious endowments & free grants of lands.
  2. Reorganized the spy system.
  3. Prohibited the use of wine.
  4. Nobles should not have convivial parties & they should not inter-marry without his permission.
    Appoint Diwan–i–Riyasat Shatna–i–mandi
    He introduced the system of Dagh (the branding of horse) & Chehra (descriptive roll of soldiers).
    Alauddin ordered that all land was to be measured & then they share of state was to be fixed.
    The post of special officer called Mustakharaj was created for the purpose of collection of revenue.
    Alauddin sought to fix cost of all commodities.
    All goods for sale were brought to an open market called Sara-i-Adal.
    Many forts were built by him & the most important of them was Alai fort. He also constructed the Alai Darwaja, the entrance gate of Qutub Minar. He also built the Palace of thousand Pillars called Hazar Sutun.
    He was a patron of art & learning. Amir Khusrau, the poet-musician was his favorite court poet.
    Malik Kafur
    In 1316, after death of Alauddin, Malik Kafur seized the throne.
    Before Kafur died, he nominated Shihabuddin (Alauddin’s 6 year old prince) as King but imprisoned eldest prince Mubarak Khan.
    Kafur was killed by the loyalists of the royal family of Alauddin.

Shiabuddin Umar (1316)

  • He was the minor son of Jhitaipali who was raised to the throne after the death of Allauddin.
  • He became a victim of court politics & was later blinded.
Mubarak Khalji (1316-20)
  • He released 18,000 prisoners
  • He reversed all the administrative & market reforms of Allauddin Khalji.
  • During his time Devgiri was annexed.

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