- A Turkish slave by origin, he was purchased by Mohammad Ghori who later made him his Governor.
- After the death of Ghori, Aibak became the master of
- Hindustan & founded the Slave Dynasty in 1206.
- The capital during his reign was not Delhi but Lahore.
- For his generosity, he was given the title of Lakh Bakhsh
- (giver of lakhs).
- He died in 1210 while playing Chaugan or Polo.
- He constructed two mosques i.e. Quwat-ul-Islam at Delhi & Adhai din ka Jhohpra at Ajmer.
- He also began the construction of Qutub Minar, in the honor of the famous Sufi Saint Khwaja Qutibuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki.
- Aibak was a great patron of learning & patronized writers like Hasan-un-Nizami, author of ‘Taj-ul- Massir’ & Fakhruddin, author of ‘Tarikh-i-Mubarak Shahi’.
Aram Shah (1210)
He was the son of Aibak, who was defeated by Illtutmish in the battle of Jud.
Shamsuddin Illtutmish (1210-36)
- He was a slave of Qutubuddin Aibak of the Mamluke tribe & occupied the throne of Delhi in 1211.
- Illtutmish began his career as Sar-e Jandhar or royal bodyguard.
- He was a very capable ruler & is regarded as the ‘real founder of the Delhi Sultanate’.
- He made Delhi the capital in place of Lahore.
- He saved Delhi Sultanate from the attack of Chengiz Khan, the Mongol leader, by refusing shelter to Khwarizm Shah, whom Chengiz was chasing.
- He introduced the silver coin (tanka) & the copper coin (jital).
- He organized the Iqta System & introduced reforms in civil administration & army, which was now centrally paid & recruited.
- He set up an official nobility of slaves known as Chahalgani/ Chalisa (group of forty).
- He completed the construction of Qutub Minar which was started by Aibak.
- He patronized Minhaj-us-Siraj, author of ‘Tabaqat-i- Nasiri’.
- He was the son of Illtutmish & was crowned by her mother, Shah Turkan, after the death of Illtutmish.
- He was deposed by Razia, daughter of Illtutmish.
Razia Sultana: (1236 – 40)
- Iltutmish had nominated his daughter Razia as the successor, the nobles placed Ruknuddin Feroz on the throne.
- She was the ‘first & only Muslim lady who ever ruled India’.
- She use to rule without the veil
- She further offended the nobles by her preference for an Abyssian slave Yakut.
- The wazir of Illtutmish Junnaidi revolted against her but was defeated.
- There was a serious rebellion in Bhatinda, Altunia, governor of Bhatinda refused to accept suzerainty of Razia. Razia accompanied by Yakut marched against Altunia.
- However, Altuna got Yakut murdered & imprisoned Razia.
- Subsequently, Razia was married to Altunia & both of them marched towards Delhi as nobles in Delhi raised Bahram Shah (3rd son of Illtutmish) to throne.
- In 1240 AD, Razia became the victim of a conspiracy & was assassinated near Kaithal (Haryana).
- Bahram Shah: 1240-42
- Iltutamish’s third son Bahram Shah was put on the throne by
- powerful Turkish council Chalisa.
- He was killed by Turkish nobles.
Allauddin Masud Shah: 1242-46
- He was son of Ruknuddin Feroz.
- He was disposed of after Balban & Nasiruddin Mahmud’s Mother, Malika-e-Jahan, conspired against him & established Nasiruddin Mahamud as the new Sultan.
Nasiruddin Mahmud 1246-66
- He was the eldest son of Illtutmish.
- Minaj-us-Siraj has dedicated his book Tabaquat-i-Nasiri to him
Ghiyasuddin Balban: 1266-87
- After the death of Nasiruddin; Balban ascended the throne in 1266.
- He broke the power of Chalisa & restored the prestige of the crown. He made kingship a serious profession.
- The Persian court model influenced Balban’s conception of Kingship. He took up the title of Zil-i-Ilahi (Shadow of God).
- He introduced Sijda (prostration before the monarch) & Paibos (kissing the feet of the monarch) as the normal forms of salutation.
- The divine right of the king was emphasized by calling himself Zil-i-Ilahi.
- He gave great emphasis on justice & maintaining law & order.
- He established the military department Diwan-i-Arz.
- In his last days he overlooked Sultanate affairs due to the death of his eldest & most loving son, Muhammad, & rebellion by his closest & most loved slave, Tughril. Muhammad died fighting Mongolians in 1285 & Tughril was captured & beheaded.
- He was the grandson of Balban was established on the throne by Fakruddin, the Kotwal of Delhi
- But Kaiqubad was killed by nobles Kaimur
- He was the minor son of Kaiqubad who came to the throne at an age of 3
- He was the last Illbari ruler.
- The Khalji nobles revolted against him & he was killed within three months.