The Slave Dynasty Qutubuddin Aibak (1206-10)

  • A Turkish slave by origin, he was purchased by Mohammad Ghori who later made him his Governor.
  • After the death of Ghori, Aibak became the master of
  • Hindustan & founded the Slave Dynasty in 1206.
  • The capital during his reign was not Delhi but Lahore.
  • For his generosity, he was given the title of Lakh Bakhsh
  • (giver of lakhs).
  • He died in 1210 while playing Chaugan or Polo.
  • He constructed two mosques i.e. Quwat-ul-Islam at Delhi & Adhai din ka Jhohpra at Ajmer.
  • He also began the construction of Qutub Minar, in the honor of the famous Sufi Saint Khwaja Qutibuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki.
  • Aibak was a great patron of learning & patronized writers like Hasan-un-Nizami, author of ‘Taj-ul- Massir’ & Fakhruddin, author of ‘Tarikh-i-Mubarak Shahi’.

Aram Shah (1210)

He was the son of Aibak, who was defeated by Illtutmish in the battle of Jud.

Shamsuddin Illtutmish (1210-36)

  • He was a slave of Qutubuddin Aibak of the Mamluke tribe & occupied the throne of Delhi in 1211.
  • Illtutmish began his career as Sar-e Jandhar or royal bodyguard.
  • He was a very capable ruler & is regarded as the ‘real founder of the Delhi Sultanate’.
  • He made Delhi the capital in place of Lahore.
  • He saved Delhi Sultanate from the attack of Chengiz Khan, the Mongol leader, by refusing shelter to Khwarizm Shah, whom Chengiz was chasing.
  • He introduced the silver coin (tanka) & the copper coin (jital).
  • He organized the Iqta System & introduced reforms in civil administration & army, which was now centrally paid & recruited.
  • He set up an official nobility of slaves known as Chahalgani/ Chalisa (group of forty).
  • He completed the construction of Qutub Minar which was started by Aibak.
  • He patronized Minhaj-us-Siraj, author of ‘Tabaqat-i- Nasiri’.

Ruknuddin: 1236

  • He was the son of Illtutmish & was crowned by her mother, Shah Turkan, after the death of Illtutmish.
  • He was deposed by Razia, daughter of Illtutmish.

Razia Sultana: (1236 – 40)

  • Iltutmish had nominated his daughter Razia as the successor, the nobles placed Ruknuddin Feroz on the throne.
  • She was the ‘first & only Muslim lady who ever ruled India’.
  • She use to rule without the veil
  • She further offended the nobles by her preference for an Abyssian slave Yakut.
  • The wazir of Illtutmish Junnaidi revolted against her but was defeated.
  • There was a serious rebellion in Bhatinda, Altunia, governor of Bhatinda refused to accept suzerainty of Razia. Razia accompanied by Yakut marched against Altunia.
  • However, Altuna got Yakut murdered & imprisoned Razia.
  • Subsequently, Razia was married to Altunia & both of them marched towards Delhi as nobles in Delhi raised Bahram Shah (3rd son of Illtutmish) to throne.
  • In 1240 AD, Razia became the victim of a conspiracy & was assassinated near Kaithal (Haryana).
  • Bahram Shah: 1240-42
  • Iltutamish’s third son Bahram Shah was put on the throne by
  • powerful Turkish council Chalisa.
  • He was killed by Turkish nobles.

Allauddin Masud Shah: 1242-46

  • He was son of Ruknuddin Feroz.
  • He was disposed of after Balban & Nasiruddin Mahmud’s Mother, Malika-e-Jahan, conspired against him & established Nasiruddin Mahamud as the new Sultan.

Nasiruddin Mahmud 1246-66

  • He was the eldest son of Illtutmish.
  • Minaj-us-Siraj has dedicated his book Tabaquat-i-Nasiri to him

Ghiyasuddin Balban: 1266-87

  • After the death of Nasiruddin; Balban ascended the throne in 1266.
  • He broke the power of Chalisa & restored the prestige of the crown. He made kingship a serious profession.
  • The Persian court model influenced Balban’s conception of Kingship. He took up the title of Zil-i-Ilahi (Shadow of God).
  • He introduced Sijda (prostration before the monarch) & Paibos (kissing the feet of the monarch) as the normal forms of salutation.
  • The divine right of the king was emphasized by calling himself Zil-i-Ilahi.
  • He gave great emphasis on justice & maintaining law & order.
  • He established the military department Diwan-i-Arz.
  • In his last days he overlooked Sultanate affairs due to the death of his eldest & most loving son, Muhammad, & rebellion by his closest & most loved slave, Tughril. Muhammad died fighting Mongolians in 1285 & Tughril was captured & beheaded.

Kaiqubad: 1287-90

  • He was the grandson of Balban was established on the throne by Fakruddin, the Kotwal of Delhi
  • But Kaiqubad was killed by nobles Kaimur
  • He was the minor son of Kaiqubad who came to the throne at an age of 3
  • He was the last Illbari ruler.
  • The Khalji nobles revolted against him & he was killed within three months.

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