Chapter-11 Buildings, Paintings, and Books

In this chapter, information about the construction of stupas is given. Hindu mythological texts and temples have also been told, as well as the great mathematician Aryabhatta has also been discussed.

The Iron Pillar

  • The iron pillar standing on the premises of Qutub Minar in Mehrauli is about 1500 years old.
  • The height of this pillar is about seven meters and was earlier a part of Hindu and Jain temples.
  • Qutbuddin Aibak destroyed the temple and established Qutub Minar in the thirteenth century.
  • Its height is 72 meters and its weight is more than 3 tons.
  • There are inscriptions on it, but a ruler named Chandra has been mentioned, who probably belonged to the Gupta dynasty.


  • A pile or aggregate of soil and other materials is called a ‘stupa’.
  • The word stupa is derived from the Sanskrit-stupa: or Prakrit Stupa, the root ‘stupa’.
  • Which means to collect, pile up, artillery or bury. Scholars are of the view that the root of the word ‘Stupa’ is ‘Stu’ which means ‘to praise’ or to praise.
  • The stupas are of different shapes such as round or tall, big or small.
  • A small box is kept inside all the stupas. In these boxes, the remains of the body of Buddha or his followers or anything used by him or any precious stone or coins are kept. These boxes are called metal Manjusha. The early stupa was an earthen mound placed on top of a metal box.

How were Stupas and temples Built?

  • There were many stages in the process of building stupas and temples, for which a lot of money was spent. Usually, the king or queen used to decide to get them built.
  • The altar was built around the stupa.
  • Around which an archway was built.
  • The Stupa and the Vedika were the beam circumnavigation path.
  • There were a total of 80 pillars in the Vedika.
  • Those who paid for their decoration included many people like traders, farmers, garland makers, perfume makers, blacksmiths, and goldsmiths, whose names are inscribed on the pillars, railings, and walls.


Hundreds of years ago viharas were built for Buddhist monks.
Due to the darkness inside these caves, most of the paintings were made with the light of torches.
This color is made from plants and minerals and is still bright after 1500.
There is an unknown artist who created these great masterpieces.

The World of Books

Many famous epics have been composed in this era. In these excellent works, there are heroic stories of men and women and stories related to gods.

  • Silappadikaram: – Taken by Sattanar about 1800 years ago, it tells the story of Kovalan and Madhavi’s daughter.
  • Meghdoot:- They were composed by Kalidas.
  • Purana: It means ancient. There are stories related to gods and goddesses like Vishnu, Shiva, Durga, and Parvati in the Puranas.

Science Books

  • Mathematician and astronomer Aryabhatt wrote a book called Aryabhattiyam in Sanskrit.
  • It was written that day and night are caused by the rotation of the earth on its axis.
  • The scientific logic of the eclipse has been given, and the method of measuring the circumference of the circle has also been written.

Important Dates

Beginning of Stupa construction – 2300 years ago
Amravati – 2000 years ago
Kalidas – 1600 years ago
Durga Mandir – 1400 years ago
Iron Pillar, Ajanta painting – 1500 years ago

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