Chapter – 2 Components of Food

What is in different types of food

  • Our food is usually given to us from plants or animals, more than one ingredient is used to make each dish (food).
  • Food fortification refers to the addition of key vitamins and minerals to staple food such as rice, wheat, oil, milk, and salt to enhance its nutritional value.
  • The names of main nutrients that we get from our food are vitamins, proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and minerals.
  • Apart from these, food also contains dietary fiber and water. The dietary ratio is also known as Rukshansh.

What do different nutrients do for our bodies?

Protein – Protein is needed by the body for growth and to stay healthy. The major sources of protein in plants are gram, kidney beans, moong, peas, and soybeans. Animals include milk, cheese, eggs, fish, meat, etc.

Fat – Our body gets energy from fat. And its main sources are sesame seeds, kernels, peanuts from plants, milk from oil animals, ghee, butter, eggs, fish, meat, etc.

Vitamins: There are many types of vitamins, which are known by different names.

Known as “Vitamin A”, “Vitamin B”, “Vitamin C”, “Vitamin D”, “Vitamin E”, “Vitamin K”.
A group of vitamins is called vitamin “B-complex”. All these vitamins are required in small amounts by our body.
Vitamin A keeps our skin and eyes healthy. Vitamin C helps us fight many diseases and Vitamin D helps our body to use calcium for our bones and teeth.

Mineral salts – Every mineral salt is required for proper growth and good health of our body. Major sources of mineral salts are ginger, iodine, and crab.

Sources of Phosphorus – Milk, Banana, Wheat
Sources of Iron – Spinach, apple, liver
Sources of Calcium – milk, egg, etc.

Rukshansh – Our body also needs dietary fibers and water. Dietary fiber is also known as ruksham.
The main sources of roughage are whole grains, pulses, potatoes, fresh fruits, and vegetables.

Balanced Diet

  • For the growth and maintenance of good health, we need the right amount of diet according to our bodies.
  • All nutrients should be in the right amount. Nothing should be too much nor too little. The diet should also contain a good amount of feed and water. Such a diet is called a balanced diet.
  • Lentils, Groundnut, Soyabean, Sprouted Seeds, Moong and Gram Dal, Fermented Foods, South Indian Foods such as Idli, Missi Roti Combination of Flour, Thepla Made from Grains and Pulses, Banana, Spinach, Sattu, Jaggery, Available vegetables, and other such foods provide many nutrients. Therefore, one can eat a balanced diet without expensive food ingredients.
  • The right kind of food should be chewed so that food can be digested easily.
  • Some vitamins may be lost after cutting or peeling vegetables and fruits. The skins of many vegetables and fruits contain vitamins and minerals. Similarly, washing rice and pulses removes some of the vitamins and minerals present in them.
  • Vitamin C is easily destroyed by heat during cooking.
  • By eating “fat” in excess, it becomes the biggest reason for increasing obesity in the body.

Deficiency Disease

  • Sometimes food is not a particular nutrient. If continues over a long period of time the person may suffer from his nutritional deficiency.
  • Deficiency of one or more nutrients can cause diseases or disorders in our bodies. Due to a lack of nutrients over a long period, called disease.
  • If a person does not get enough protein in the diet for a long time, then he is prone to swelling of the hair, skin diseases, and diarrhea, discoloration of the face, stunted growth.
  • Deficiency of various vitamins and minerals can also result in certain diseases or disorders.
  • Diseases caused by lack of proper nutrition can be prevented by taking a balanced diet daily.


Question 1:- Name of the major nutrients in our food?
– The names of main nutrients of our food are carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals.

Question 2:- Write the names of the following:

A. Which mainly give energy to our body.
– Carbohydrates, Fats
B. Nutrients are essential for the growth and maintenance of our body.
Answer – Protein
C. The vitamin is essential for our good eyesight.
– Vitamin A
D. That mineral is essential for our bones.
– Calcium

Question 2:- Fill in the blanks:-

A. _ Vitamin D deficiency is caused due to Answer – Rickets. Deficiency of _ causes a disease called Beri- beri.
– Vitamin B1.
B. Deficiency of Vitamin C causes a disease called. Answer – Scurvy. The absence of __ in our diet causes night blindness.
– Vitamin A.

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