Firuz Shah Tughlaq (1351-88)

  • He was a cousin of Mohammad-bin Tughlaq.
  • He adopted the policy of appeasement with the nobility, the army & theologians
  • The new system of taxation was according to Quran. Four kinds of taxes sanctioned by the Quran were imposed & those were Kharaj, Zakat, Jizya & Khams. Kharaj was the land tax, which was equal to 1/10 of the produce of the land, Zakat was a 2% tax on property, Jizya was levied on non-Muslims & Khams was 1/5 of the booty captured during the war.
  • Firoz tried to ban practices, which the orthodox theologians considered non-Islamic. Thus he prohibited the practice of Muslim women going out to worship at the graves of saints & erased paintings from the palace.
  • It was during the time of Firoz that Jizya became a separate tax.
  • In order to encourage agriculture, the Sultan paid a lot of attention to irrigation. Firoz repaired a number of canals & imposed Haque-i-Sharb or water tax
  • He was a great builder as well; to his credit are the cities of Fatehabad, Hisar, Jaunpur & Firozabad.
  • The two pillars of Ashoka, one from Topra (Haryana) & the other from Meerut (U.P.) were brought to Delhi.
  • The Sultan was established at Delhi, a hospital described as Dar-ul-Shifa.
  • A new department of Diwan-i-Khairat was set up to make provisions for the marriage of poor girls.
  • However, his rule is marked by peace & tranquility & credit for it goes to his PM Khan-i- Jahan Maqbul.
  • He died in 1388.

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