Jainism in India
- Founded by Rishabhanath.
- There were 24 Tirthankaras (Prophets or Gurus), all Kshatriyas.
- First was Rishabhanath (Emblem: Bull).
- The 23rd Tirthankar Parshwanath (Emblem: Snake) was the son of King Ashvasena of Banaras. His main teachings were: Non-injury, Non-lying, Non-stealing, and Non-possession.
- The 24th & the last Tirthankar was Vardhman Mahavira (Emblem: Lion).
Vardhman Mahavira History:
- He was born in Kundagram (Distt Muzaffarpur, Bihar) in 599 BC.
- His father Siddhartha was the head of the Jnatrika clan. His mother was Trishla, sister of Lichchavi Prince Chetak of Vaishali.
- Mahavira was related to Bimbisara.
- Married to Yashoda, had a daughter named Priyadarsena, whose husband Jamali became his first disciple.
- At 30, after the death of his parents, he became an ascetic.
- In the 13th year of his asceticism (on the 10th of Vaishakha), outside the town of Jrimbhikgrama, he attained supreme knowledge (Kaivalya).
- From now on he was called Jaina or Jitendriya & Mahavira, & his followers were named Jains. He also got the title of Arihant, i.e., worthy.
- At the age of 72, he attained death at Pava, near Patna, in 527 BC.
- Note: In Jainism, three Ratnas (Triratnas) are given & they are
- called the way to Nirvana. They are Right Faith, Right Knowledge & Right Conduct.
History of Jain Councils:
First Council: Held at Pataliputra by Sthulabhadra at the beginning of the third century BC. It resulted in the compilation of 12 Angas to replace 14 Purves.
Second Council: It was held at Vallabhi (Gujarat) in the fifth century AD under the leadership of Devridhigani.