Indus Valley Civilization in India

Ancient Civilizations in India

  • The Indus Valley Civilization was an ancient civilization thriving along the Indus River & the Ghaggar-Hakra River in what is now Pakistan & north-western India.
  • According to radio-carbon dating, it spread from the year 2500 – 1750 BC.
  • R.B. Dayaram Sahni first discovered Harappa (on Ravi) in 1921. R.D. Banerjee discovered Mohenjodaro or ‘Mound of the Dead’ (on Indus) in 1922. Sir John Marshal played a crucial role in both these.
  • Harappan Civilization forms part of the protohistory of India & belongs to the Bronze Age.
  • Copper, bronze, silver, gold were known but not iron.
  • The Indus-Valley people were well-acquainted with the use both of cotton & wool.
  • Domestication of animals:
  • Stockbreeding was important in Indus culture. Besides sheep & goats, dogs, humped cattle buffalo & elephant was certainly domesticated. The camel was rare & the horse was not known.

Indus Valley Civilization Town Planning:

  • Elaborate town-planning. It followed the Grid System. Roads were well cut, dividing the town into large rectangular or square blocks
  • Used burnt bricks of good quality as the building material. Elsewhere in the contemporary world, mud bricks were used.
  • In Mohanjodaro, a big public bath (Great Bath) measuring 12 m by 7 m & 2.4 m deep, has been found. Steps led from either end to the surface, with changing rooms alongside. It was probably used for ritual bathing.
  • Mohenjodaro (Sind) is situated on the right bank of the Indus.
  • Chanhudaro lies on the left bank of the Indus about 130 km south of Mohenjodaro.
  • Kalibangan (Rajasthan) was on the banks of the river Ghaggar which dried up centuries ago.
  • Lothal is at the head of the Gulf of Cambay.
  • Banawali (Haryana) was situated on the banks of the now-extinct Sarasvati River.
  • Surkotada (Gujarat) is at the head of the Rann of Kutch.
  • Dholavira (Gujarat) excavated is in the Kutch district

Trade & Commerce in Ancient India:

There was no metallic money in circulation & trade was carried through Barter System
Weights & measures of accuracy existed in Harappan culture (found at Lothal). The weights were made of limestone, steatite, etc & were generally cubical in shape.
16 was the unit of measurement (16, 64,160, 320).
A dockyard has been discovered at Lothal. Rangpur, Somnath & Balakot functioned as seaports. Sutkagendor & Sutkakoh functioned as outlets.

Indus Valley Civilization Script:

  • The script is not alphabetical but pictographic (about 600 undeciphered pictographs).
  • The script has not been deciphered so far, but overlaps of letters show that it was written from right to left in the first line & left to right in the second line. This style is called ‘Boustrophedon’

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