Chapter – 8 Vital Villages, Thriving Towns

Iron Tools and Agriculture

  • The use of iron in the subcontinent started 3000 years ago.
  • Iron tools and weapons have been found in large numbers in the megalithic tombs.

People Living in the Village

  • There were three types of people living in the village.
  • Vellala – Large landowners in the Tamil region.
  • Udvar – ordinary pudding.
  • Kadasiyar – Landless laborers and slaves.
  • Most of the villages had craftsmen like blacksmiths, potters, bargains, and weavers.

Tamil compositions

  • His works are called Sangam literature.
  • Creation – 2300 years ago.
  • They were used in the conferences of poets of Madurai.

Punch Marked Coins

  • These coins were called Ahat Coins because of the various shapes made by hurting them on Chandi or gold coins.

Mathura Nagar

  • About 2000 years ago Mathura became the second capital of the Kushanas.
  • It was situated on two main routes of traffic and trade.
  • All the forts around the city were captive, there were many temples in it.
  • This beautiful idol has been created.

Crafts and Crafts Person

  • Very thin, beautiful, and dark shiny vessels of clay have been found.
  • Both men and women used to work here.
  • Craftsmen and traders started forming their own associations. which were called categories.
  • The job of the categories of craftsmen was to impart training.


Arikamedu was a port about 2200 to 1900 years ago.
Here a structure made of bricks has been found which may have been a warehouse.
Roman lamps, lead utensils, and rattan have also been found.
Shares for making beads from semi-precious stones have been found.

Some Important Dates

The beginning of the use of iron – about 3000 years ago
City, Punched Marked Coins – Around 2500 Years Ago
Arikamedu Port – about 2200 and 1900 years ago

Let’s Recall

Question 1:- Describe the function of gramabhojaka, Why do you think he was powerful?
Answer:- The village-bhojak was usually the biggest land owner of the village. Their slaves and laborers worked on their land. Due to their influence, the king also used to give them the task of collecting taxes. He also served as a judge.

Question 2: List the craftsmen living in both villages and cities.
:- The list of craftsmen living in both villages and cities is as follows:-
Carpenter, Weaver, Potter, Goldsmith, Sculptor, etc.

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